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Environment

Women, cities, and opportunity: Making the case for secure land rights

Klaus Deininger's picture

Also available in: Français 

Land and property lie at the center of many of today’s pressing development challenges. Consider that at most 10% of land in rural Africa is reliably registered. At this week‘s annual Land and Poverty Conference here at the World Bank, we will hear how this vast gap in documentation of land gap blunts access to opportunities and key services for millions of the world’s poorest people, contributes to gender inequality, and undermines environmental sustainability.

International transfers of mitigation to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement

Michael Toman's picture
More than a year has passed since the signing of the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, in which developed, emerging and developing countries across the world have pledged to limit or reduce their greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) as a start toward limiting dangerous climate change. Under the Agreement, countries can work together to reduce emissions. Mike Toman, a Lead Economist in the World Bank’s Development Research Group, and Motu’s Suzi Kerr have come up with three basic guidelines for financing of emissions reductions in less economically advanced countries:
  1. Do not conflate “international carbon markets” with “internationally transferred mitigation outcomes.”
  2. Be cautious about the apparent gains from linking emissions trading markets.
  3. Create contracts between developed and developing country governments for internationally transferred mitigation obligations.

When does pollution policy work? The water quality and infant mortality impacts of Mehta vs. Union of India

Quy-Toan Do's picture
India’s rivers are heavily polluted. According to official estimates, 302 of 445 river stretches fail to meet even bathing criteria (Central Pollution Control Board [CPCB], 2014). This is known to have a heavy disease burden: each year, 37.7 million Indians are affected by waterborne diseases, 73 million working days are lost, and 1.5 million children are estimated to die of diarrhea alone (Water Aid, 2008). 
Yavuz SariyildizShutterstock.com

Is diversifying exports a path toward peace in Syria?

Saurabh Mishra's picture
"Syria". Drawing by Rajesh Sarkar.



Resource rich nations face unique challenges when attempting to move from low to high value added activities.

Resource sectors (such as mining and oil) tend to be highly capital intensive and offer limited employment opportunities to accommodate workers exiting from other sectors with lower average productivity, such as agriculture and informal services.

Harnessing the data revolution and improving land management through geospatial technology

Klaus Deininger's picture
Also available in: 日本語



Advances in earth observation, computing power, and connectivity have tremendous potential to help governments, and us at the World Bank, support better land management, and ultimately reduce poverty and promote shared prosperity.

There are three ways in which these technologies profoundly change the scope of our work.

Natural resource booms are a mixed blessing for local communities, too*

Punam Chuhan-Pole's picture

The impact of natural resource wealth on macroeconomic outcomes is well researched, with the debate centered on whether resources are bad for development (i.e., the phenomenon of the resource curse). However, relatively little attention has been given to examining the effect on communities where those resources are located. 

But interest in the local impact of resource abundance is growing, underpinning a nascent literature.  The focus of this research is on exploring whether extractive activities improve or harm welfare in adjoining regions, and how the benefits or costs are transmitted to the local population.  The answers to these questions can inform policy, leading to better outcomes, and may also help us understand the sources of regional and social tensions associated with extractive industries. 

What, exactly, is a fossil fuel subsidy? A review of valuation approaches

Masami Kojima's picture
Half a trillion dollars? Two trillion dollars? “Only” 85 billion? Widely-differing numbers have been cited in recent years for global fossil fuel subsidies, making policy evaluation and consensus-building on reform challenging. Different definitions for subsidies, the boundaries of review, and the methods for calculating subsidies are responsible for the large differences and have contributed to the confusion.

Sustainable poverty reduction and green growth

Ulf Narloch's picture

Ending poverty and achieving shared prosperity will require more than economic growth. It will require pro-poor policies to be sustainable.
 
The recently released Global Monitoring Report 2014/2015 focuses on the importance of sustainability as a means to enable countries to reach out to their poorest people over the medium term (to 2030) and long term (beyond 2030). 

Controlling Global Climate Change

Michael Toman's picture

The recently released fifth report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) makes abundantly clear that human-induced climate change is taking place, and that unchecked climate change poses a serious threat to economic development and human well-being.  Even leaving aside the problem of increased risk of low-probability but catastrophic events, climate change threatens people and places through damages to unique and important ecosystems, increases in severe weather events, reductions in productivity, and needs for increased expenditures to counter the threats such as greater costs to build and maintain infrastructure.  For a number of reasons, the poor are likely to be disproportionately affected by these threats.

Carbon Taxes and Investment in Public Transport

Stéphane Hallegatte's picture

Economists often recommend fuel taxes to curb greenhouse gas emissions from automobiles in cities. But the effectiveness of these taxes depends heavily on other factors, like the availability of public transportation, and the density of a city. In the following podcast interview, I discuss my paper, co-authored with Paolo Avner and Jun Rentschler, and explain why taxes are twice as effective when accompanied by an investment in public transport. Please listen in.

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